Fibrosis of the lungs - the causes , signs , symptoms and treatment

Category Disease | December 12, 2017 00:03

Fibrosis of the lungs is a disease involving the presence of a tissue in the lungs of scar tissue that disrupts the function of breathing. Fibrosis lowers the elasticity of the tissues, which makes the passage of oxygen through the alveoli( bubbles where the air contacts the blood) more difficult. This disease involves the replacement of normal lung tissue with connective tissue. Reverse process of regeneration of connective tissue again in the pulmonary is not possible, so the patient can not fully recover, however, it is still possible to improve the patient's quality of life.

  • Reasons for the appearance of
  • What is the cause of
  • Forms of the disease
  • Causes of development
  • Diagnosis
  • How to treat
  • Prevention

Causes of the appearance of

The fibrotic changes appear for the following reasons:

  • the presence of long-lasting infectious diseases;
  • availability of allergies;
  • effects of radiation exposure on human organs;
  • of granulomatous type diseases;
  • Prolonged inhalation of dust.

The local type of disease that affects a certain area can develop asymptomatically, and in severe stages both local and diffuse fibrosis of the roots of the lungs and other parts will necessarily make itself felt by such bright symptoms:

  • shortness of breath. At the initial stage of diffuse fibrosis, it appears only after physical exertion, but later begins to pursue the patient even at rest;
  • presence of cough. First, the cough can be dry, but after a while it will be accompanied by sputum discharge;
  • pain in the chest;
  • presence of wheezing in the lungs;
  • increased sweating;
  • cyanosis( most often - on the mucous tissue of the mouth and fingers).

Apical pulmonary pneumofibrosis can cause:

  • deformation of the fingers( thickening of the nail and the fingers themselves);
  • increased dyspnea;
  • increased heart rate;
  • presence of a large number of edema on the legs;
  • swelling of veins on the neck;
  • presence of pain in the retrosternal region;
  • weakness and inability to exercise.

These symptoms usually appear at later stages of the development of the pathological process.

Diseases associated with fibrosis

A severe type of disease that promotes the transformation of ordinary pulmonary tissue into a connective tissue can develop against the background:

  • of the alveolitis, the symptom of which is respiratory failure. Is a precursor of the disease;
  • asbestosis( a disease that manifests itself due to frequent exposure to dust from asbestos);
  • mycoses of the lungs( fungal tissue damage in patients with weak immunity);
  • of diabetes mellitus;
  • pulmonary injury;
  • tuberculosis in the lungs( an infectious-type infectious disease that develops due to exposure to mild mycobacteria).

Patients often develop basal fibrosis. The basis for its progression in most clinical situations is chronic bronchitis. In the early stages of the disease occurs almost asymptomatically, but as the disease progresses, the symptoms become more pronounced. The connective tissue proliferates, which leads to a disruption in the functioning of the lungs. It is important to diagnose the disease in time and begin to treat it, so that there are no more serious complications.

Fibrosis of the lung

Forms of the disease

Fibrosis of the lungs can be:

  • one-sided ( affects one lung);
  • bilateral ( affects both lungs).

Also, the disease of occurrence is divided into:

  • focal fibrosis ( small area lesion);
  • total fibrosis ( lung damage completely).

Depending on the severity of development, the ailment is divided into:

  • pneumofibrosis of the lungs. It is a proliferation of connective tissue that alternates with areas of the lung tissue;
  • cirrhosis. It is a complete replacement of tissues, which causes problems in the functioning of pulmonary vessels and deformation of the bronchi;
  • sclerosis. It is expressed in complete replacement of pulmonary connective tissue, which causes organ densities.

According to the reason for the appearance, these types of diseases are distinguished:

  • dust fibroses, which usually arise in representatives of certain professions, forced to contact with dust( silicosis, asbestosis);
  • focal fibrosis, which occurs in diseases of connective tissue( lupus, arthritis of rheumatoid type);
  • after a previous infection;
  • idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This kind of ailment occurs for no apparent reason.

Causes of the disease

Among the main factors that contribute to the development of tissue transformation, distinguish:

  • the impact of factors of production( patient's inhalation of flour, shavings, sand, cement dust and other small substances);
  • vasculitis( an inflammatory process that affects blood vessels);
  • transferred tuberculosis or pneumonia. After these diseases fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis can develop. This is a dangerous pathology, in which the pulmonary tissue is largely affected. It is important to diagnose and start treating fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely manner, since serious complications, dangerous not only for health, but also for the patient's life, can develop without adequate treatment.

Diagnosis

To begin to treat ailment it is possible only after careful diagnostics. To do this, doctors use both laboratory and instrumental methods of examination, which make it possible to determine the localization of the disease, the vastness of the lesion, and so on.

The most effective method of diagnosis is the appointment of radiography. It helps to identify pathologies in the radical and other areas. Also, in order to detect fibrotic changes in the lungs, CT of the lungs is used( computed tomography).In addition, the doctor will appoint a patient angiopulmonogram, which will show whether there are changes in the blood vessels( narrowing or widening of the branches of the vessels).

Fibrous-cavernous pulmonary fibrosis can also be detected with bronchoscopy or respiratory function analysis. As a result of the analysis, it is possible to determine the respiratory rate, inspiratory volume and air conduction in the bronchi.

Bronchoscopy

How to treat the disease

Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis should be based on:

  • excluding the effect of harmful to light components( dust);
  • oxygen therapy. In this case, the patient must wear a mask in which oxygen is accessed;
  • application of a wide range of drugs;
  • surgical intervention( removal of the fibrosed area of ​​the lungs).

In addition, sometimes using folk remedies to combat the disease. Doctors do not officially recognize folk therapy, but in some cases they are allowed to use the means approved by them. For example, help to make up the amount of oxygen will help tincture from the goritzvet with the addition of fennel and cumin fruit. This folk remedy must be insisted, strained and drunk 3 times a day.

Also, the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis is carried out with the help of special exercises. The respiratory gymnastics helps to treat the ailment. It is aimed at partial or complete resumption of the work of the body.

Prevention of the disease

To avoid having to treat this serious illness, doctors recommend following such preventive measures:

  • to avoid stress;
  • to quit smoking;
  • observe safety precautions when operating;
  • periodically undergo a physical examination.

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If you believe that you have Fibrosis of the lungs and the symptoms typical for this disease, then your doctor can be helped by a pulmonologist.

We also offer our online diagnosis service, which, based on the symptoms, selects the probable diseases.


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