Fibrosing alveolitis : forms , symptoms, treatment

Category Disease | December 12, 2017 00:03

Fibrozing alveolitis is an ailment that affects pulmonary tissue, characterized by the development of the inflammatory process. As a result, fibrosis develops - a healthy pulmonary tissue is replaced by a connective tissue, which can provoke the development of respiratory failure( DV).If the treatment is not performed in a timely manner, a fatal outcome is possible. This disease occurs rarely and is not amenable to drug therapy.

  • Reasons
  • Classification
  • Stages
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications

Causes

Most often the disease affects people over 50 years old. Mostly it affects men. At the heart of the progression of the disease is an autoimmune reaction. If it develops, then the development of antibodies against the cells of the human body begins.

In the progression of the disease, a certain role is played by viruses, in particular the hepatitis C virus and adenoviruses. Risk factors can also include some professions. There are cases when fibrosing alveolitis

developed after a long exposure to the body of chemical aerosols, dust.

Classification of

Clinicians distinguish 3 nosological forms of this ailment:

  • idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis;
  • exogenous allergic alveolitis;
  • toxic fibrosing alveolitis.

Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis is a malaise of an unknown genesis that affects pulmonary tissue and is accompanied by an increasing ND.This ailment is of several morphological forms:

  • usual interstitial pneumonia( IP);
  • nonspecific IP;
  • obliterative alveolitis, which develops in tandem with interstitial lung disease;
  • acute IP.

Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis is difficult to treat, as it is difficult for clinicians to establish the true cause of its progression. This type of illness should be treated only in a hospital environment, since the risk of developing severe complications is high.

Exogenous allergic alveolitis is a group of ailments that develop due to prolonged exposure to the human body of dust that contains animal or vegetable protein compounds.

Toxic fibrosing alveolitis develops due to prolonged exposure to mild toxic substances, as well as some synthetic medications.

Stage

  • acute stage. At this stage of pathology development, the cells of the alveolar epithelium, as well as the capillaries, are damaged. As a consequence, the patient develops intra-alveolar and interstitial edema followed by the formation of hyaline membranes;
  • chronic stage. The pathological process is gradually progressing. Gradually affects all the lungs and begins to be deposited collagen. This condition is called widespread fibrosis. Alveolar spaces alternately burst;
  • terminal stage. Lightweight fabrics become like honeycombs. Fibrous tissue replaces healthy organ tissues, and extensive cavities are formed.

Symptoms of

Symptoms of fibrotic alveolitis

Fibrotic alveolitis has the following symptoms:

  • a persistent cough that causes severe discomfort to the patient;
  • the patient's body weight is reduced;
  • as the progression of the disease develops shortness of breath, which prevents a person from even speaking normally;
  • in some cases during coughing sputum can be abundantly separated;
  • the patient feels weakness in the whole body, weakness;
  • gradually develop pain in the muscles and joints during physical exertion, as well as at rest;
  • nail plates can be gradually deformed. Their shape will resemble drumsticks;
  • tachycardia;
  • peripheral edema;
  • swelling of the cervical veins.

It is important to diagnose the disease as soon as possible and begin to conduct adequate treatment. In the early stages of the disease can be cured almost completely. It is important to know, there are no such means that could turn fibrous tissue back into the alveolar and healthy.

Diagnosis

If a person has the first signs of fibrosing alveolitis, he should immediately go to a medical facility to undergo an examination and take the necessary tests that can confirm if the body has this ailment. For the diagnosis of pathology, the following methods are used:

  • UAC;
  • X-ray examination. It makes it possible to detect signs of ailment. The picture will clearly show cystic enlightenment. As a rule, the place of their localization is the lower part of the lungs;
  • CT of the lungs. The most informative method. It makes it possible to detect changes in the pulmonary tissue before the first symptoms appear and the person goes to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment;
  • examination of the function of external respiration;
  • bronchoalveolar lavage;
  • bronchography.

Treatment of

The progression of the disease can be stopped by the use of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic synthetic medications. Also in therapy use and immunodepressants. Drug treatment is effective only if it is used in the early stages of development of pathology.

Non-drug treatment includes rehabilitation programs that are aimed at strengthening the patient's physical and psychological health. They include physical training, as well as psychological support. To reduce cough and shortness of breath, doctors often prescribe oxygen therapy. It is especially effective in the early stages of the progression of the disease.

Completely eliminate fibrosing alveolitis can only be done if you perform a lung transplant. This method of treatment is very effective, but expensive. The life expectancy of the patient after the surgical procedure is increased.

Some patients try to treat the ailment at home using folk remedies. But in this case they are not effective. On the contrary. Inadequate and incorrect use of them can only exacerbate the patient's condition.

Complications of

Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis can be temporarily suspended by intensive and proper treatment, but there is absolutely no way to cure it completely. It will slowly progress. On average, people with fibrosing alveolitis live about three or four years.

Allergic and toxic alveolitis in the early stages of development can be cured. It is simply necessary to eliminate the cause that triggered their development, and to conduct competent and comprehensive treatment. The patient is recommended to stay in hospital during therapy so that doctors can monitor his condition.

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