COPD - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment and Prevention

Category Disease | December 12, 2017 00:03

Chronic obstructive pulmonary di

sease( the formulation of the diagnosis of COPD) is a pathological process for which a partial limitation of the air flow in the airways is peculiar. The disease causes irreversible changes in the human body, so there is a greater threat to life if the treatment was not scheduled on time.

  • Causes of
  • Symptoms of
  • Stages of
  • Diagnosis of
  • Treatment of
  • Prevention of

Causes of

The pathogenesis of COPD has not yet been fully understood. But experts identify the main factors that cause the pathological process. As a rule, the pathogenesis of the disease includes progressive bronchial obstruction. The main factors affecting the formation of the disease are:

  1. Smoking.
  2. Unfavorable conditions of professional activity.
  3. Raw and cold climate.
  4. Infection of mixed genesis.
  5. Acute lingering bronchitis.
  6. Diseases of the lungs.
  7. Genetic predisposition.

What are the manifestations of the disease?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathology that is most often diagnosed in patients aged 40 years. The first symptoms of the disease, which begins to notice the patient, cough and shortness of breath. Often this condition occurs in combination with whistles during respiration and sputum secretions. At first it comes out in a small volume. The symptoms are more pronounced in the morning.

Cough is the very first sign that worries patients. In the cold season, respiratory diseases worsen, which play an important role in the formation of COPD.Obstructive pulmonary disease has the following symptoms:

  1. Shortness of breath, which worries when performing physical exertion, and can then hit a person during rest.
  2. With the influence of dust, cold air, dyspnea intensifies.
  3. Symptoms supplement a low-productivity cough with hard-to-recover sputum.
  4. Dry wheezes of a high tempo when exhaled.
  5. Symptoms of emphysema of the lungs.

Stages of

The classification of COPD is based on the severity of the disease. In addition, it assumes the presence of a clinical picture and functional indicators.

Classification of COPD involves 4 stages:

  1. The first stage - the patient does not notice any pathological abnormalities. He can attend a chronic cough. Organic changes are uncertain, so it is not possible to diagnose COPD at this stage.
  2. The second stage - the disease is not difficult. Patients consult a doctor for advice on shortness of breath during exercise. Another chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is accompanied by an intense cough.
  3. The third stage of COPD is accompanied by a severe course. It is characterized by the presence of a limited supply of air in the respiratory tract, so dyspnea is formed not only with physical exertion, but also at rest.
  4. The fourth stage is extremely difficult. The emerging symptoms of COPD are of a dangerous nature for life. There is a corkiness of the bronchi and a pulmonary heart is formed. Patients who are diagnosed with stage 4 COPD receive a disability.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD)

Diagnostic methods

Diagnosis of the presented disease includes the following methods:

  1. Spirometry is a method of investigation through which it is possible to determine the first manifestations of COPD.
  2. Measurement of the vital capacity of the lungs. Sputum cytology. Such diagnostics makes it possible to determine the nature and severity of the inflammatory process in the bronchi.
  3. The blood test allows to detect an increased concentration of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit in COPD.
  4. Radiography of the lungs allows to determine the presence of compaction and changes in bronchial walls.
  5. ECG allow to obtain data on the development of pulmonary hypertension.
  6. Bronchoscopy is a method that allows you to establish a diagnosis of COPD, as well as to view the bronchi and determine their condition.

Treatment of

Bronchi in COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological process that can not be cured. However, the doctor appoints his patient a certain therapy, thanks to which he can reduce the frequency of exacerbations and prolong the life of a person. The pathogenesis of the disease has a great influence on the course of the prescribed therapy, because it is very important to eliminate the cause that contributes to the occurrence of pathology. In this case, the doctor appointed the following activities:

  1. Treatment of COPD involves the use of medications, the action of which is aimed at increasing the clearance of the bronchi.
  2. Mucolytic agents are used to dilute sputum and excrete it into the therapy process.
  3. Help to stop the inflammatory process with the help of glucocorticoids. But prolonged use of them is not recommended, since serious side effects begin to occur.
  4. If there is an exacerbation, then this indicates the presence of its infectious origin. In this case, the doctor prescribes antibiotics and antibacterial drugs. Their dosage is prescribed taking into account the sensitivity of the microorganism.
  5. For those who suffer from heart failure, oxygen therapy is necessary. In case of exacerbation, the patient is prescribed a sanatorium-and-spa treatment.
  6. If the diagnosis has confirmed the presence of pulmonary hypertension and COPD, accompanied by a report, the treatment includes diuretics. The glycosides help to prevent arrhythmia.

COPD is a disease that can not be treated without a properly formulated diet. The reason is that the loss of muscle mass can lead to death.

Appearance of patients depending on the type of COPD

Patients may be placed on inpatient treatment if they have:

  • a high intensity of manifestation increase;
  • treatment does not give the required result;
  • there is a new symptomatology;
  • the rhythm of the heart is disturbed;
  • diagnosis defines such diseases as diabetes, pneumonia, inadequate functioning of the kidneys and liver;
  • can not provide medical care on an outpatient basis;
  • difficulty in diagnosis.

Preventative measures

Prevention of COPD includes a set of activities, thanks to which each person can warn his body of this pathological process. It consists of the following recommendations:

  1. Pneumonia and influenza are the most common causes of COPD formation. Therefore, it is necessary to put flu shots every year.
  2. Once every 5 years to carry out vaccination against pneumococcal infection, thanks to which it is possible to protect your body from pneumonia. Only the attending physician can prescribe the vaccination after a proper examination.
  3. Taboo on smoking.

Complications of COPD can be very diverse, but, as a rule, they all lead to disability. Therefore, it is important to carry out the treatment on time and be under the supervision of a specialist all the time. And the best way is to carry out preventive measures in order to prevent the formation of the pathological process in the lungs and to prevent themselves from this ailment.

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If you believe that you have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease( COPD) and the symptoms typical for this disease, then your doctor can be helped by a pulmonologist.

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