Exudative pleurisy( hydrothorax) is a dangerous disease of the respiratory system, which is characterized by the development of the inflammatory process in the pleura with the subsequent accumulation of exudate( effusion) in it. The ailment is cunning because it affects people from different age groups, but most often its targets are people of working age. Hydrotorax can develop as an independent disease, but in most clinical cases, its formation was promoted by inflammatory or infectious diseases of the lungs and other organs.
Exudative pleurisy is not widely recognized as a widespread ailment. According to the latest statistical data, it was found that this pathology affects about one million people per year. This is due to the fact that it complicates the course of other diseases in traumatology, pulmonology, cardiology, phthisiology and others. Very often exu
Hydrothorax affects exclusively the pleural cavity. It is a closed space on all sides. In this cavity there is always a certain amount of effusion. Norm - no more than 10 ml. In one hour the pleura produces about 100 ml of liquid. This is a normal physiological process, completely harmless to human health. Produced exudate absorbs capillaries and lymphatic vessels. Under the influence of adverse factors, the production of exudate can increase and the pleura will not be able to completely adsorb it. The residues will concentrate in the cavity. This will lead to the development of exudative pleurisy( right-sided or left-sided).
Hydrotorax has several basic forms:
A common cause of development of infectious exudative pleurisy is the penetration of infection, viruses and bacteria that caused the development of the underlying ailment into the pleural cavity. More than 80% of cases of development of hydrothorax are observed in patients whose history records the main diagnosis of "pulmonary tuberculosis".
Infectious exudative pleurisy develops due to penetration into the cavity of specific and nonspecific pathogens:
Separately it is necessary to allocate hydrothorax tubercular etiology .Its main cause of development is an increase in the sensitivity of the patient's body to Koch's stick. This process in medical circles is called "sensitization".As a result, if several microbes enter the cavity of the pleura, the reactive effusion will begin to accumulate several times faster. And in this situation it is a serious complication, which can lead to death. Tuberculosis hydrothorax affects mainly adult patients, practically without affecting children.
Main causes of noninfectious exudative pleurisy:
The severity of symptoms of exudative pleurisy directly depends on two factors:
Clinical picture, characteristic for pleurisy with accumulation of exudate:
If at this point the patient is examined by a doctor, then during auscultation of the localization zone of the hydrothorax he will hear a complete absence of respiratory noises. Also, percussion in the lower section of the affected lung will be marked by dullness of the sound.
The most dangerous symptom is the movement of the heart to a healthy side. This occurs with a large accumulation of effusion. If this happens, then an excess of the inferior vena cava that supplies blood to the heart is possible. As a consequence, his blood supply will be disrupted.
All these symptoms are important to know, as the disease can develop rapidly and from the timely contact with a doctor can depend not only on the preservation of human health, but even his life.
In medicine, three phases of development of the disease are clearly marked:
If the first symptoms of the development of the hydrothorax are detected, it is recommended that they urgently go to a medical facility to diagnose and identify the cause of the disease.
Informative Diagnostic Techniques:
All the data received without fail must be recorded by the doctor in the patient's medical history. All subsequent analyzes are also added there to monitor the dynamics.
Treatment of exudative pleurisy is primarily aimed at evacuating accumulated effusion from the pleural cavity, as well as treating the underlying disease that provoked hydrothorax.
If a significant amount of effusion has accumulated in the pleural cavity, the cavity is drained in an emergency manner. During this surgical procedure, the fluid is completely removed from the pleura. After the procedure, a number of symptoms disappear or decrease, including shortness of breath, body temperature, swelling of the cervical veins and so on.
In view of the main diagnosis recorded in the medical history, drug therapy is prescribed:
The second stage is symptomatic treatment. The doctor prescribes drugs whose action is aimed at reducing the severity of symptoms:
Dosages of prescribed synthetic medications are recorded in the medical history.
Also good effect gives physiotherapy treatment. If there are no specific contraindications, then paraffin therapy and electrophoresis are prescribed.
Prevention of hydrothorax, first of all, is to prevent and timely treatment of diseases that can affect the pleura. It is also worthwhile to work on strengthening your immune system.
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