Ethmoiditis : types, causes , signs , symptoms, treatment

Category Disease | December 12, 2017 00:03

Ethmoidal sinusitis or acute etmoiditis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the mucosal epithelium located in the cells of the latticed bone. The meaning of this term is not known to anyone( more often on hearing a sinusitis or sinusitis), but the pathology itself is very common. It is for this reason that it is necessary to know what is the etmoiditis, its symptoms and treatment. The pathology is quite dangerous, since the focus of inflammation is close to the brain and the branch of the trigeminal nerve, which is responsible for the innervation of the face. Etmoidal sinusitis occurs in both adults and children.

  • Pathogens
  • Causes of
  • Types
  • symptoms of acute forms
  • symptoms of the chronic form
  • Complications
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment of acute etmoidita
  • Treatment of chronic etmoidita
  • Surgery
  • Traditional methods of treatment
  • ethmoiditis children
  • Prevention

Pathogens

main agents gaymoroetmoidita are the same viruses, which provoke the occurrenc

e of acute respiratory viral infection, influenza, rhinovirus or adenovirus infection. The cause of the disease can become bacteria - staphylococci and streptococci, as well as pathogenic fungi. In medicine, there were cases when the maxilloemitis develops due to, so-called, mixed infection. Several pathogens are detected in the test material.

Ethmoid sinusitis develops primarily in rare cases. As a rule, in children of preschool, school age and in adults, it appears as a complication from other infectious diseases: sinusitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis. In the latticed sine, the infection enters two ways: hematogenous( most often) and contact. Gajmeroetmoiditis can affect even newborn children. The cause is umbilical, intrauterine and cutaneous sepsis.

Causes of the development of the disease

The pathological process is most often triggered because of an infectious disease that affects the human body and weakens its immunity. As a result, viruses and bacteria begin to actively develop on the nasal mucosa. The main reasons for the development of maxillofacitis are:

  • abnormalities of the nasopharynx( congenital and acquired throughout life);
  • frequent colds, runny nose;
  • viral infections;
  • fungal, bacterial, viral sinusitis;
  • chronic diseases associated with the nasal cavity( allergic rhinitis in particular);
  • injury to the face;
  • weakened immunity.

The first signs of ethmoid sinusitis in adults and children are manifested against the weakening of immunity and inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Older people more easily tolerate this disease. In children, the mucous membrane of the cells is inflamed much more often, and the disease proceeds heavily, with a high body temperature. The pathological process can pass to other paranasal sinuses. In such cases, it is customary to talk about the development of maxilloetmoiditis and frontoethmoiditis.

Types

By the nature of the leakage, two forms of ethmoidal sinusitis are distinguished:

  • acute;
  • is chronic.

The localization of the inflammatory process distinguishes:

  • bilateral - cells from both sides of the trellis are affected;
  • right-sided - only cells on the right are inflamed;
  • left-sided - only the cells on the left side are inflamed.

The disease is also classified according to the characteristics of its course. There are three forms:

  1. Catarrhal etmoiditis. The cause is viruses. For this form is characterized by abundant lacrimation. The patient has the first signs of intoxication - headache, dizziness, weakness in the whole body, nausea. Eye white eyes reddened. In some cases, in the inner corner of the eye there may be bursting capillaries. Nasal bridge edematous. Swelling spreads to the corners of the eyes. With this form, there is no sense of smell at all.
  2. Polyposic etmoiditis. This form of the disease is chronic. It arises from a prolonged runny nose. The swelling of the mucosa does not last long and often seizes the latticed bone. Inside the cells gradually grow polyps, which completely block the lumens. Because of this, the mucosa will be constantly edematous. Patients may experience remissions. At this time, the signs of the disease almost completely disappear. A person can breathe freely through the nose. Exacerbation occurs against the background of acute respiratory infections.
  3. Purulent etmoiditis. The most complex and dangerous form of the disease. The symptomatology is pronounced, the body temperature rises to high figures - 39-40 degrees. There is a strong pain in the frontal lobes and nose, teeth, eyes. There is abundant lacrimation. Compound the state of signs of general intoxication of the body.
Inflammation area with ethmoiditis

Symptomatic of acute form

Acute etimoiditis develops against the background of infectious diseases. A person has a heaviness at the base of the nose, nasal passages are laid. Isolated mucus along with pus yellowish-green color. Often the whole process is accompanied by a very severe headache.

This form is characterized by:

  • temperature rise to high digits;
  • general condition worsens;
  • the patient has a feeling of weakness and fatigue;
  • pain in the root of the nose, which extends to the orbit;
  • the skin of the inner part of the orbit is often thickened and very sensitive to touching;
  • pulsating pain at the base of the nose and forehead area( worse at night);
  • fast fatigue;
  • photophobia.

In the elderly and young children, the pathological process can destroy the bone walls of the cells, and the inflammation will gradually pass to the soft tissues of the inner corner of the orbit. If acute etmoiditis is not treated, then the process will start to affect surrounding tissues, multiple foci are formed. As a consequence, there will be intracranial and orbital complications, osteomyelitis of the upper jaw.

Symptomatic of the chronic form

If the disease was not previously diagnosed and treated correctly, the patient develops a chronic etmoiditis. Often, this pathological process is a complication of inflammation of the maxillary sinus( gaymeroetmoiditis), a frontitis or a chronic rhinitis. The first signs of this disease appear in a person two months after the acute ethmoiditis.

When exacerbation of chronic etmoiditis the following symptoms are observed:

  • upper eyelid strongly swollen;
  • from the nose go purulent discharge;
  • severe headache;
  • in the nose of the patient notes the severity, which increases if it tilts the head;
  • pus and mucus flow down the nasopharynx. Many excretions accumulate in the morning and the patient coughs up with great difficulty;
  • when the eye is moving, the patient feels severe pain.

This form of the disease is dangerous because the mucosa of the middle shell of the nose begins to grow very quickly, and soon it closes with the nasal septum. Degenerative changes in it lead to the formation of polyps. If the edema does not subside, then there will be polyposis. Multiple polyps will fill the entire nasal cavity and begin to come out. The nasal septum will deform.

Complications of

If acute or chronic ethmoiditis is not treated, purulent masses can spread to nearby organs. Develop complications, dangerous not only for health, but for human life. The most common problems are:

  • complications on the eye - phlegmon eye socket, retrobulbar abscess, empyema;
  • the lattice maze is destroyed;
  • inflammatory process passes to intracranial areas. This is the most dangerous condition, as the brain abscess, diffuse purulent meningitis, arachnoiditis can develop.

Moreover, chronic etmoiditis is almost impossible to detect on its own. Therefore, you can not delay! At the first sign of the disease, you should immediately visit a qualified specialist."Cured" or not cured completely inflammatory process can lead to irreversible consequences.

Diagnosis

The most informative method for assessing the condition of the sinuses of the trellis in cases of maxilloemitis is computed tomography. In medical institutions, magnetic resonance therapy is also often used. This method has its advantages - high resolution and informative. With its help, it is possible to diagnose sinusitis caused by fungi. MRI is the method of choice for diagnosing the disease in children, since it does not use ionizing radio waves.

For the diagnosis of ethmoid sinusitis in adults, radiographic examinations are used. In the picture, the darkening of the cells of the latticed bone will be seen.

Instrumental survey methods:

  1. Endoscopic examination. It is carried out by means of a probe with an optical system.
  2. Rhinoscopy. The nasal cavity is examined with the help of an expander and a nasopharyngeal mirror.
Endoscopic examination

Treatment of acute etmoid sinusitis

Acute etimoiditis should be treated with medical preparations. Therapeutic measures will be aimed, first of all, at reducing the swelling of the mucous membrane of the cells of the latticed bone.

The most effective method of treatment is the Yamik sinus catheter. With the help of such a catheter, specialists remove pus from infected cells, inject medicinal substances into them, which suppress the activity of bacteria and viruses, thereby eliminating inflammation.

Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action - Amoxicillin, Tsipromed, Augmentin, Sumamed, Clacid - are best used for bacterial infection. Also shown is the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Ebastine, Chloropyramine. Nasal congestion is eliminated with the help of vasoconstrictors. The most effective are Nafazolin, Dimethinden.

Treatment of chronic ethmoid sinusitis

Chronic etmoiditis is more difficult to cure. Symptoms are eliminated through the treatment of complex drugs - Polydex, Bioparox, Isofra. In the composition of these drugs are present several active substances - antibiotic, anesthetic, vasoconstrictor.

Physiotherapeutic procedures also give a very good effect:

  • hydrophoretic fonophoresis;
  • electrophoresis with solutions of dimedrol and calcium chloride;
  • UHF on the sinuses of the latticed bone;
  • the nasal cavity is treated with a helium-neon laser.

Surgery

Surgery for this disease is indicated only when complications occur due to the rapid spread of the inflammatory process to the bone tissue and periosteum. The cells of the trellis are opened from the outer access. The operation is performed under anesthesia.

The first thing a surgeon needs is to provide full access to the trellis bone. For this, he extends the nasal passage. After that, the cells are opened. All affected areas are deleted during the operation.

Traditional methods of treatment

Ethmoid sinusitis should not be treated solely with folk remedies! They can serve as an auxiliary therapy. The main treatment is antibiotics, vasoconstrictive and anti-inflammatory drugs. In addition, you can wash the nasal sinuses with a decoction of sage, chamomile or strong tea leaves. It is also possible to wash the sinuses with a heated solution of Ledum or Cyprulae. Treatment of ethmoiditis should be done only under the strict supervision of your doctor!

In addition to the basic treatment, one can rinse the nasal sinuses

Ethmoid sinusitis in children

This disease in children occurs in isolated form. Sinuses are affected, since they are the most developed since birth. Treatment of etmoiditis in newborns, children of preschool and school age should be done only in a hospital!

In children, all symptoms are more pronounced. The high temperature complicates the course of the disease - up to 40 degrees. Gradually, intoxicating phenomena increase - vomiting and nausea.

The eye, located on the side of the inflammation, completely closes, and the eyeball moves down and slightly to the side. If you do not provide qualified help to a patient, complications can appear on the third day due to the breakthrough of pus. If the child does not receive adequate treatment, then on the fifth day orbital and intracranial complications develop, sepsis.

Treatment of ethmoiditis in children is carried out only in a hospital. First of all it is necessary to conduct active antibacterial therapy. The drugs are administered intravenously. Removal of pus from the sinuses can be carried out using an electric pump. Also prescribe vasoconstrictor drugs. It is important to bring down the temperature in time. To this end, the child is prescribed Ibuprofen or Paracetamol.

At the stage of recovery, physiotherapy is prescribed - ultrasound, UHF, microwave, helium-neon laser, magnet. Children are observed in the clinic until they are fully recovered.

Prevention

Because ethmoid sinusitis is caused by a variety of microorganisms, there are no specific measures for its prevention. To prevent development of this pathological process, it is necessary to prevent the development of diseases that can cause it. In addition, it is shown to take vitamin complexes to strengthen the immune system in the cold season.

In order for the disease to not develop in children, it is necessary to strengthen their immune system from birth. To this end, you can use vitamin preparations( by age), give fruits enriched with vitamin C, carry out hardening.

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