Agranulocytosis - Causes, Symptoms , Symptoms and Treatment

Category Disease | December 12, 2017 00:03

Granulocytes are leukocytes that have a specific granular( granular) cytoplasm. The bone marrow is responsible for their production. Agranulocytosis - an ailment that is characterized by a decrease in the content of granulocytes in the blood. This leads to an increase in the susceptibility of the patient to various fungal and bacterial diseases. Human immunity is gradually weakening, which is fraught with the development of various complications in the future. But with the timely detection of pathology and its competent treatment, all this can be avoided.

  • Types of
  • Reasons for
  • Symptoms of
  • Complications of
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment of

According to statistics, it is women who are more likely to suffer an ailment( 2-3 times more often than men).There is a disease usually after reaching 40 years. Agranulocytosis has a rather high lethality, which reaches 80%.

Agranulocytosis of the hapten type appears due to the influence of diamox, barbiturates, insecticides and other chemicals. Th

e haptenic form of the disease has not been sufficiently studied. If the patient has autoimmune forms of lesion, the hapten agranulocytosis will appear every time a certain drug is administered. It is important to identify in a timely manner that substance or medical preparation, the reception of which provokes the progression of hapten agranulocytosis, in order to immediately eliminate it and prevent the development of complications.

Types of

Depending on the time of onset, agranulocytosis happens:

  • acquired( myelotoxic disease occurs during life);
  • congenital( symptoms of the disease begin to manifest immediately after the birth of the child).

There is another classification of agranulocytosis, which is used in medical institutions:

  • is allergic. Appears due to the triggering of allergic mechanisms in the body;
  • immune agranulocytosis. Develops after the destruction of granulocytes with antibodies. Immune agranulocytosis is observed in cases of infectious diseases or long-term medication;
  • beam. Appears when the body is irradiated with radiation;
  • is a medicament. Is a special form of allergic agranulocytosis, which is observed when taking medications. It causes oppression of myelopoiesis in the bone marrow;
  • is salvaged. It is observed in patients treated with salvaresan preparations;
  • is symptomatic. Appears due to diseases of the circulatory system and is characterized by suppression of hemopoiesis.

Causes of the disease

The causes of agranulocytosis are quite diverse. Even the administration of certain medications may provoke the progression of pathology. Particularly it is worth highlighting the following factors that contribute to the development of the disease:

  • irradiation of the body with radiation;
  • effects on the body of chemical compounds( benzene) or insecticides;
  • receiving medications;
  • presence of autoimmune diseases;
  • viral diseases( hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, yellow fever);
  • infections of bacterial or viral type, characterized by severe course;
  • genetic pathology;
  • significant weight loss.

Symptoms of the disease

Agranulocytosis is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • febrile state;
  • general weakness;
  • appearance of dyspnea;
  • frequent heartbeat;
  • lesions of the skin;
  • necrosis of a necrotic type;
  • pneumonia.
Necrotizing angina

Symptoms of the disease differ depending on the type of ailment and the state of the patient's health. In some cases, they can be expressed very clearly, while in others they can be practically absent. It is very important to notice the manifestation of the first symptoms of a disease in a timely manner so that you can seek medical help as soon as possible.

Complications of

Myelotoxic disease may have the following complications:

  • sepsis( blood poisoning).Staphylococcal type sepsis is often observed. The most dangerous complication for a patient's life;
  • perforation in the intestine. The ileum is most sensitive to the formation of through holes;
  • pneumonia;
  • severe swelling of the intestinal mucosa. In this case the patient has an intestinal obstruction;
  • acute hepatitis. Often in the treatment of epithelial hepatitis;
  • formation of necrosis. Refers to infectious complications;
  • septicemia. The more a patient suffers from myelotoxic disease, the harder it is to eliminate her symptoms.

If the disease is caused by haptens or arises from the weakness of immunity, the symptomatology of the disease manifests itself most vividly. Among the sources that cause infection, saprophyte flora is singled out, which includes the Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli. In this case, the patient has a strong intoxication, raising the temperature to 40-41 degrees. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause metastatic infectious ulcers on the body, which can be found on the surface of the kidneys, lungs, or other organs during autopsy.

Diagnosis of

In a potential risk group, patients who had previously been exposed to radiation, suffered severe infectious diseases, or underwent prolonged therapy with medication.

Every person who has one or more of the symptoms listed above is required to take an X-ray of the lungs, to examine their blood for sterility and to pass a biochemical blood test. Also, a doctor can prescribe a consultation with an otolaryngologist or even a dentist. It is important to distinguish agranulocytosis from anemia, leukemia or HIV.

Treatment of

disease Agranulocytosis should be treated in several stages:

  • elimination of the cause of the disease. In order to eliminate symptoms, the patient needs to stop taking myelotoxic or chemical medications. This will help restore the normal process of hematopoiesis;
  • providing sterile conditions for for patients. For this, patients who have an illness are placed in specialized wards. Quartz should be carried out in them, and visits by the relatives should be strictly limited. Carrying out these measures serves as a reliable prevention of subsequent possible complications, which can not only worsen the general condition of the patient, but also cause his death;
  • providing preventive measures to , as well as treatment for complications. Agranulocytosis in children and adults can be treated with antibiotics myelonetoxic type. Therapy against bacteria in this case, the doctor will not be appointed. In addition to antibiotics, the patient must drink antifungal drugs, which include levorin, as well as nystatin. Complex treatment of the disease involves the intravenous injection of immunoglobulin and plasma against staphylococcus for 5 days.

The prognosis of the treatment of the disease is usually favorable. It can worsen the appearance of foci of tissue necrosis and infectious ulcers.

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If you think that you have Agranulocytosis and symptoms typical for this disease, then you can help doctors: an allergist, an immunologist, a hematologist.

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