Alcoholism - a disease that occurs when the systematic abuse of alcohol is characterized by psychic dependence in intoxication, medical and neurological disorders, personality degradation.The disease can progress and abstinence from alcohol.
CIS 14% of adults abuse alcohol and 80% drink alcohol moderately, driven by some drinking traditions, formed in the society.
to abuse often result in factors such as conflicts with family, unsatisfactory quality of life, inability to realize themselves in life.At a young age alcohol is used as a way to experience the interior comfort, courage, overcome shyness.The average age is used as a way to relieve fatigue, stress, walk away from the social problems.
constant recourse to this method of relaxation leads to permanent dependence and the inability to feel internal comfort without alcohol.According to the degree of dependence and symptoms of alcoholism are several stages.
first stage of alcoholism. For the first stage of the disease is c
Complications of alcoholism first stage is primarily manifested by the liver, occurs alcoholic fatty degeneration .Clinically, it almost does not occur, in some cases, there may be a feeling of fullness, flatulence , diarrhea .To diagnose the complication may be to increase consistency and plotnovata liver.On palpation the liver edge is rounded, it is more sensitive.With abstinence, these symptoms disappear.
Complications from the pancreas is acute and chronic pancreatitis .This marked abdominal pain, which are located on the left and radiates to the back, as well as loss of appetite, nausea, flatulence, unstable chair.Often the abuse of alcohol conducts to alcoholic gastritis, in which also no appetite and nausea, pain in the epigastric region.
second stage. Alcoholism second stage is the period of progression from 5 to 15 years of age and is characterized by increased reactivity of the modified syndrome.alcohol Portability is maximized, there are so-called psevdozapoi , their frequency is not associated with the patient's attempts to get rid of addiction to alcohol, and to external circumstances, such as lack of money and the inability to get alcohol.
replaced the sedative effect of alcohol comes activating, memory lapses when consuming large amounts of alcohol are replaced by complete amnesia end intoxication.This is explained by the daily drinking syndrome, psychic dependence, in a sober state of the patient loses the ability to mental work, there is disorganization of mental activity.There is a syndrome of physical alcohol dependence, which suppresses all feelings except craving for alcohol, which becomes uncontrollable.Patient depressed, irritable, inoperative, upon receiving the alcohol functions are in place, but loses control over the amount of alcohol, which leads to excessive intoxication.
Alcohol Treatment in the second stage must be carried out in the Specialty Hospital, a doctor or a psychiatrist narcologist.Sharp rejection of alcohol causes such symptoms of alcoholism as a somatoneurological exophthalmos , mydriasis, flushing of the upper body, tremor fingers, nausea, vomiting, intestinal relief, pain in the heart, liver, and headaches.There are mental symptoms degradation of personality, intelligence weakening, delusions.alarm occurs frequently, nocturnal restlessness, seizures, which are the precursors of acute psychosis - delirium tremens, popularly known «delirium tremens» .
Complications of alcoholism second degree of the liver presented alcoholic hepatitis , often chronic form.The disease is more common in persistent form than progressive.As well as complications in the first degree, hepatitis few clinical symptoms manifest.To diagnose the complication may be on gastrointestinal pathology, there is heaviness in the epigastric region of the stomach, right upper quadrant, there is a slight nausea, flatulence.On palpation the liver condensed, extended and a little painful.
alcoholic gastritis during the second stage of alcoholism may have symptoms disguised withdrawal symptoms, painful difference is repeated vomiting in the morning, often mixed with blood.On palpation there is pain in the epigastric region.
After long drinking bouts develop acute alcoholic myopathy, appears weakness, swelling in the muscles of the hips and shoulders.Alcoholism often causes heart disease is not ischemic.
third stage.Alcoholism third step differs significantly from the previous two, the duration of this step 5-10 years.This is the final stage of the disease and as practice shows, most of it ends lethally.Reduced tolerance to alcohol intoxication occurs when small doses of alcohol.Binges end physical and psychological exhaustion.
Ranged drunkenness may be replaced by long-term abstinence or preserved systematic daily alcoholism.No activating effect of alcohol intoxication end amnesia.Psychic dependence is not severe symptoms, as in the third stage of alcoholism profound mental changes occur.Physical dependence on its part appears quite defining lifestyle.A person becomes rude, selfish.
intoxicated manifest emotional instability, which is the symptoms of alcoholism, cheerfulness, irritability, anger is unpredictable change each other.
personality degradation, reduced intellectual capacity, inefficiency, leads to the fact that an alcoholic with no means for alcoholic beverages, uses surrogates, selling things, stealing.The use of such surrogates as a denatured alcohol, cologne, varnish and others. Lead to serious complications.
Complications of the third stage of alcoholism often presented alcoholic cirrhosis.There are two forms of alcoholic cirrhosis - compensated and decompensated form.The first form of the disease characterized by persistent anorexia, flatulence, fatigue, reduced-apathetic mood.There is a thinning of the skin, they appear white spots and spider veins.The liver is increased, dense, it has a sharp edge.
patient Appearance varies greatly, there is a sharp weight loss, hair loss.
Decompensated cirrhosis form varies according to three types of clinical symptoms.These include portal hypertension, which causes esophageal and hemorrhoidal bleeding, ascites - the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.jaundice occurs frequently, in which the liver is significantly increased, in severe cases, liver failure occurs, with the development of coma.The patient found the increased content of melanin , which gives the skin a jaundiced or earthy hue.
diagnosis of alcoholism may be suspected in appearance and behavior.Patients look older than their years, over the years, the face becomes congested, lost skin turgor.A person gets a special kind of willful debauchery, because of relaxed circular muscles of the mouth.In many cases, there is untidiness, carelessness.
alcoholism diagnosis in most cases turns out to be quite accurate, even if the analysis is not very patient, and his entourage.The members of the patient's family alcoholism exhibit a number of psychosomatic disorders, neuroticism or psihotizatsiya teetotal husband, pathology in children.The most frequent pathology in children whose parents abuse alcohol regularly, it is a small congenital cerebral insufficiency.Often these children have excessive mobility, they are not focused, have a thirst for destruction and aggressive behavior.In addition to congenital abnormalities in the child's development affects and distressing situation in the family.The children found the logo-neurosis, enuresis , night terrors, behavioral disorders.Children of depressed, prone to suicide attempts, they often have difficulties with learning and socializing with peers.
In many cases, pregnant women who abuse alcohol, there is the birth of fetal alcohol.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is characterized by gross morphological abnormalities.The most common abnormality of the fetus is the wrong shape of the head, the body proportions, spherical deep-set eyes, underdevelopment of the jaw bones, shortening of tubular bones.
We have already briefly described the treatment of alcoholism, depending on its stage.In most cases, the treatment can occur after relapse.This is due to the fact that treatment is often aimed at eliminating only the most severe manifestations of alcoholism.Without a properly conducted psychotherapy, lack of support from loved ones, alcoholism recurs.But as practice shows, this therapy is an important component of treatment.
first stage of alcoholism treatment is to eliminate the acute and subacute states of intoxication caused by the body.First held binge interruption and removal of abstinent disorders.In the later stages of therapy is carried out only under the supervision of medical personnel, as delirichesky syndrome occurs when interrupt binge requires psychotherapy and some sedatives.Relief of acute alcoholic psychosis is the rapid immersion of the patient to sleep with dehydration and supports the cardiovascular system.In cases of severe alcohol intoxication alcohol treatment is performed only of specialized hospitals and psychiatric wards.In the early stages about alcohol treatment may be sufficient, but more often at refusal of alcohol occurs deficiency of neuroendocrine regulation, the disease progresses and leads to complications and organ pathology.
second stage of treatment is aimed at the establishment of remission.A complete diagnosis of the patient and the treatment of psychiatric and somatic disorders.Therapy on the second stage of treatment can be quite distinctive, its main task is to eliminate somatic disorders, which are key in the formation of pathological craving for alcohol.
To unconventional therapies include technique Rozhnova , which is emotional stress therapy.Good prognosis in treatment gives a hypnotic effect and prior to him psychotherapeutic conversation.During hypnosis the patient is instilled an aversion to alcohol, toshnotno-emetic reaction to the taste and smell of alcohol.Often used method of verbal aversive therapy.It consists in setting up the psyche by verbal suggestion, vomiting responsible reaction to the use of alcohol, even in an imaginary situation.
third stage of treatment involves the extension of remission and return of normal life.This stage can be considered the most important in the successful treatment of alcoholism.After two previous stages, the person reverts to society, to their problems, friends, that in most cases, as alcohol dependence to family conflicts.This has a greater effect on relapse.In order that a man could own and eliminate the causes of external symptoms of alcoholism require prolonged therapy.The positive effect is given autologous training, they are widely used for group therapy.Training is the normalization of autonomic disorders and removing emotional stress after treatment.
applied behavioral therapy , so-called correction of lifestyle.Man learns to live in a sober state, to solve their problems, acquiring self-management skills.A very important step in the restoration of normal life is to achieve mutual understanding in the family and its problems.
For successful treatment it is important to get the patient's desire to get rid of alcohol addiction.Compulsory treatment does not give such results as voluntary.Nevertheless, refusal of treatment requires the district psychiatrist forced patient referral in LTP.Therapy in the primary care network does not give positive results, as the patient has an open access to alcohol, it is visited by drunken friends, etc.
Where the alcohol started in adulthood requires an individual approach in the selection of therapy.This is due to the fact that somatoneurological alcoholism symptoms appear much earlier and the abuse disorders.
Mortality in alcoholism is most often associated with complications.There decompensation of vital organs caused by prolonged heavily, abstinence, intercurrent diseases.20% of elderly patients with alcoholism have signs epilepsy , slightly less common acute syndrome of Wernicke-Gaye .Seizures of both diseases at the influence of alcohol can be deadly.The presence of alcoholic cardiomyopathy worsens prognosis.Continued systematic use of alcohol results in the death rate.
Less than 25% of patients with this complication live more than three years after diagnosis.
high percentage of mortality in alcoholic intoxication takes death as a result of suicide.This contributes to the development of chronic gallyuzinoza, alcohol paraphrenia, delusions of jealousy.The patient is not able to control the crazy thoughts and commits acts unusual in a sober state.