acantholysis - a pathological degenerative process associated with the change spinous layer of the epidermis .This results in the destruction of intercellular bridges, the cells are reduced and lose most of the cytoplasm, nucleus undergo morphological changes, which leads to the formation of cracks ( leaf-pemphigus ) or bubbles ( vulgar pemphigus ).The basis of this process are acantholysis immune mechanisms .
Most often acantholysis observed at toxic epidermal necrolysis , akantoditicheskoy pemphigus , polidisplasticheskoy dystrophic form of epidermolysis bullosa, senile keratosis , benign familial chronic pemphigus, Darier's disease , as well asin bubbles in viral diseases.
There are primary and secondary acantholysis.
Primary acantholysis characteristic of autoimmune processes, such as pemphigus, genetic disorders keratinocyte membranes.The loss of cell-cell contact trigger are exogenous factors, ie, bacterial infection, mechanical trauma, and others. Deprived ties keratin
secondary acantholysis characteristic lesion keratinocytes viruses ( pox, hepatitis ).The result is an intracellular edema and vacuolization of cells.Vacuoles shifted the core of what it takes on a crescent shape.This deviation was called vacuolar degeneration.If such swelling affects the basal cell layer, deaths occur and separating them from the basement membrane of the epidermis with formation subepidermal tissue and fluid bladder.
At sharply expressed edema of epidermal cell contacts fade over a large area, forming large bubbles filled with sero-fibrous exudate with dramatically swollen keratinocytes.
Violation mezhkeratsitarnyh links associated with the primary changes in the dermis , but not in the epidermis.Changes in the epidermis are secondary, they arise due to penetration of the dermal edema fluid.The expansion and rupture of intercellular communication in the epidermis caused by this liquid.Emerging in the subsequent microcavity can merge, resulting in formation of large bubbles and spongioticheskimi spongioticheskie pustules (the penetration of leukocytes).