Albinism

Category Glossary | August 12, 2017 17:54

Albinism - a complete or partial absence of pigment of hair, skin and iris;hereditary defect pigmentation .

reasons

It is now believed that the main cause of this anomaly of a blockade or lack of a certain enzyme - tyrosinase, responsible for the synthesis of melanin in the body.The extent of the lack of pigment depends on the nature of the violation in the genes responsible for its formation.But there are also situations where pathologies genes have been identified, but the man still suffers from albinism, in which case we have to be a mutation of certain genes.

Classification

Medicine identifies many types of albinism, taking into account both the phenotype and genotype, but traditionally this pathology can be divided into two major groups: the eyes, the skin (HCA) and ocular (GA) type.

Treatment and prevention

Unfortunately, there is currently no tool that could help deal with the lack of melanin in the skin, and iris.Ocular albinism is often accompanied by disturbances of

vision (eg, strabismus ), which you can get rid of only by surgery and irreversible disorders such as changes in the retina of the eyes and nerves.Lack of melanin in the skin is not only an aesthetic problem, but also increases the risk of cancers.In order to protect the body from the sun's rays (usually this is the function of melanin), the albino is recommended to use a sunscreen with good filters, sunglasses or tinted lenses.

Modern genetic research couples to prevent transmission anomaly rather successfully reduces the risk of albinism in children.

Interesting Facts

  • A black mother of the African country of Mali two days getting to the hospital with the baby in her arms albino.Mortality of white-skinned people in African countries is much higher, due to the high probability of occurrence of skin lesions.
  • On the island of Fiji people with albinism have always respected and held senior positions in society.
  • so-called "Union of colorless" was organized in the United States, which defends the rights of albinos in the society.
  • Statistics occurrence of albinism in different countries is different: the average European rate of albino people is 1 per 20 000, in Nigeria - 1 to 3000, and in Panama it altogether 1 132 inhabitants.