Melanin - a dark natural pigment, a powerful antioxidant , which is contained in the hair, retina, skin, fabrics, wool, etc.In vertebrate organisms, including humans, melanin is produced in special cells - melanocytes .He delayed in granular form in a protein associated with the condition.
are several types of melanin, which differ from each other by their color:
Melanin is widespread in almost all organisms, except human tissue, plant tissues and even the simplest well saturated with the substance.Melanin determines the color of the hair and skin of fish depends on it color scales in horses - color, the birds - the color of the feathers.Thus, this pigment largely responsible for the appearance of animals and plants.
One of the most important functions of melanin - a protective.It is designed to protect the covers from ultraviolet rays .These pigments absorb the first radiation, thus protecting the deeper tissues f
Reduced concentration of melanin or no is not the norm for the body, and can carry a greater danger to humans, especially living in the area with the scorching sun.People completely or almost completely devoid of pigment called albino .Mortality albino in Africa is about 60%.
The experiments showed that melanin affects not only the color of the skin, hair, and other tissues.When the animals for a long time administered melanin, they stopped frequently emotionally-reactive response in rats decreased the amount of emotional affective reactions.It was also found that the water-soluble form of melanin reduces the formation of ulcers and bleeding amount, prevents the loss of body weight during times of stress in the animals.Other studies have shown that melanin reduces the level of radionuclides in the body, which made it the basis of a means of prevention of developmental and genetic consequences of irradiation.
Today melanin used: