Metastases

Category Glossary | August 12, 2017 17:54

Metastases - is secondary foci of pathological process located at a remote distance from the original source.Metastases occur as a result of movement cancer cells through the tissues of the body, so they reach and hit the new bodies, which are both far and near.The most common type of movement metastases - a lymphatic and blood vessels, and the movement can be carried out within the cavities.The use of this term is usually associated with cancer , however, when sepsis , for example, it could mean purulent inflammation .

Metastasis - the process of the formation of metastases.

emergence of metastases usually characteristic of those cases where the treatment of the pathological process was not correct, adequate or timely.Usually they appear already in the late stages of the disease, but doctors are often able to identify these cells at the earliest stages, even when the tumor has not yet formed.This is just the latest techniques are based detection of cancer in its early stages, when using s

pecial oncomarkers experts see such cells.

Numerous studies have shown that the spread of cancer cells throughout the body do not necessarily lead to the growth of new tumors in various organs.Resistance to body tissues, human immunity is largely determined by the ability of metastatic tumors to develop in full.

metastasis and relapse of malignant tumors are far more dangerous than the primary tumor, so their early detection is essential for life.

A number of factors influence the characteristics and frequency of secondary processes:

  • In case of malignant tumors of the first stage, when the cancer cells have not yet crossed the barrier tissue and do not fall into the vessels, the likelihood of metastasis or recurrence is very low.However, this theoretical aspect.To determine whether the disease can be defeated indeed only after several repeated examinations over time.
  • the tumor site also affects the being spread of metastases.Skin cancer, for example, identified in the first stage is successfully treated in 100% of cases, the second stage has to treat up to 80%.Place neoplasms location plays a role not only for the frequency of metastasis, but also influences the location of the metastasis.Anal tumor often metastasizes to lymph nodes in the groin, prostate cancer metastases affect bone system forecasts usually worse on tumor occurrence in breast depth than in the event in the tissues lying closer to the surface.
  • Histological structure and shape of growth also affects the metastases.Surface mold can grow very slowly, starting to metastasize only a few years.Most adverse forecasts are usually at the low-grade form of lung cancer.
  • nature and extent of the treatment, as well as the principle of an integrated approach gives much better results than treatment with any one approach.The patient's age influences the development of metastases, for the reason that metabolism slows down with age, so the old recurrence and metastasis occurs rarely and milder.

There are several ways of metastasis:

  • Hematogenous (blood)
  • Lymphogenous (through the lymph and lymph nodes)
  • Mixed

When lymph flow carries the tumor cells of lymphatic vessels to other lymph nodes occurs lymphogenous path metastasis.Thus, diseased cells often spread from the colon tumors, esophagus, larynx, stomach, cervix.

In the case of movement of cancer cells bloodstream can conclude hematogenous way .It is characterized by first entering the cells in a vessel and then to various organs: bone, liver and lungs.Most tumors can metastasize both equally likely ways.

The regional metastases usually results lymphogenous path, while leads to hematogenous metastases in distant organs.Places clusters of nodal metastases and are well known to diagnose.This earlier study possible and timely treatment of patients.

peculiar collector is the neck, where there are many lymph nodes that collect lymph from the entire body.There is a particular pattern that reveals the location of metastasis of some tumors.For example, cancer of the upper jaw, the mouth, the anterior tongue and the upper lip is usually extended to the submandibular and submental lymph nodes.Malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland, larynx, pharynx, posterior divisions of language metastasize to nodes in the neck.Supraclavicular metastases from spread of breast cancer.Thus, in the detection of diseases voremya allows to anticipate possible negative consequences, and to treat them in a timely manner.Therefore, every time you visit your doctor to patients, examined his lymph nodes.

Axillary region is the second place where the focus metastases.Cancer of the upper limbs and chest is often metastasizes in the area, so she carefully examined the detection of a given diagnosis.

Unlike the lymph node, hematogenous metastases are usually more numerous and distant.Patients sarcoma of bone, kidney cancer, breast , ovarian metastases are usually found in the lungs due to this pathway.In this case, extremely necessary to conduct timely radiology lungs.

As for the liver, this organ is particularly at risk.It is the location of the metastasis as a result of hematogenous and lymphatic spread of kidney cancer, stomach, lung, colon.