- Causes of hemorrhoids
- Classification and stage hemorrhoids
- Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids
- Complications hemorrhoids
- Diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids
- Prevention of hemorrhoids
According to statistics, 8 out of 10 people in their lifetimeThey pointed at the signs and symptoms of the disease such as hemorrhoids, whose name translated from Greek means "bleeding from internal organs."
The term "hemorrhoids" refers to diseases of the rectum, which is associated with inflammation, abnormal tortuosity and extension, as well as thrombosis hemorrhoidal veins.
In clinical practice it is accepted to allocate internal and external hemorrhoids, depending on the localization of inflammation. When an internal hemorrhoid inflammation of the upper notes of the cavernous body (the so-called hemorrhoidal veins), whereas external hemorrhoids there is inflammation of the lower corpus cavernosum, which is located around the anal sphincter, near the exit of the rectum.
Causes of hemorrhoids
should be noted that every year is celebrated an increased incidence of hemorrhoids, while the disease affects all age groups.Health professionals have identified two causes of hemorrhoids:
- vascular cause (stagnation in hemorrhoids due to the enhanced inflow and outflow of impaired blood from the corpora cavernosa);
- mechanical cause (due to unfavorable factors of the nodes change their normal position, with the result that gradually begin to "slide" down).
Predisposing factors of hemorrhoids should include:
- getting infections;
- inflammatory disease in the liver and the intestine;
- violation of the outflow of blood from the intestine;
- tumor process localized in the gut and liver;
- excessive exercise (increased intra-abdominal pressure as a result of such stress leads to loss of nodes);
- alcohol abuse (causing acceleration of blood flow in the anal area, it can lead to a hemorrhoidal bleeding over time);
- spicy and spicy food (causing irritation in the anal area);
- sedentary lifestyle;
- hereditary factors;
- prolonged stay in a sitting position;
- frequent and chronic constipation;
- frequent stress.
Classification and stage hemorrhoids
The clinical picture of the disease is customary to distinguish acute and chronic hemorrhoids and 4 stages of the disease:
- I stage is characterized by the seal and the sagging of hemorrhoids in the rectal lumen;
- stage II marked loss of nodes from the rectum, which is easy to reduce a self;
- stage III observed loss of nodes from the rectum to the inability to reposition their self, which can be achieved by means of additional hands;
- stage IV hemorrhoids do not reduce a.
In addition, the mechanism of the disease is customary to distinguish congenital and acquired hemorrhoids.At the same time acquired hemorrhoids is divided into primary (acts as an independent disease) and secondary (manifested symptom of another disease, such as cirrhosis of the liver).to the content ↑
Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids
clinical picture of the disease may be characterized by the following symptoms:
- perianal edema;
- discharge of blood from the anus;
- anal itching;
- pain (or only at the time of defecation, or constant);
- prolapsed hemorrhoid;
- discomfort, bloating and a feeling of incomplete emptying.
In advanced cases of the disease doctors have to deal with:
- necrosis hemorrhoid tissue;
- purulent paraproctitis;
- swelling of the anus;
- massive bleeding.
Diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids
Diagnosis of the disease is based on:
- patient survey;
- the inspection;
- digital examination of the rectum;
- fecal occult blood.
Hemorrhoids requires differential diagnosis with:
- anal fissure;
- prolapse of the rectum;
- rectal cancer.
symptom anal fissure can speak not only about hemorrhoids, and rectal cancer, so you should promptly consult a specialist.
Treatment of the disease can be carried out in three directions:
- conservative therapy;
- minimally invasive therapy;
Conservative therapy is aimed at reducing the frequency of exacerbations, severity and duration.Such treatment may be administered only in the initial stages of the disease.Conservative treatment consists of:
- local treatment (elimination of pain, inflammation and thrombosis nodes);
- general treatment (use phlebotropic drugs, improvement of microcirculation in the nodes, and the normalization of blood outflow from them).
Minimally invasive therapy is used after failure of conservative treatment.Techniques Employed:
- doping latex rings;
- infrared photocoagulation.
Surgery shown the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and no other minimally invasive therapies.Used operations:
- operation Longo;
- technique THD;
- classical hemorrhoidectomy (+ various combinations).
Prevention of hemorrhoids
Preventive measures can not only reduce the likelihood of complications and exacerbations, but also to protect themselves from the disease.Prevention of hemorrhoids is:
- achieve normal bowel function;
- avoiding prolonged straining;
- podmyvanii cold water after defecation;
- committing a special gymnastics for women, brooding child;
- using soft chairs at work and at home;
- compliance with the working and rest.