- Types and symptoms of melanoma
- causes of the development of melanoma
- Diagnosis and treatment of melanoma Melanoma Prevention
Melanoma - a malignant tumor that affects the skin.The disease usually develops from melanocyte cells that are responsible for the production of melanin pigment.This, in most cases, causes the dark color of melanomas.However, there are amelanotic melanoma and not containing melanin.
According to statistics, melanoma accounts for nearly 1% of the total number of cancers.Localization melanomas concentrated mainly in the skin, but there are rare instances where melanoma develops in the conjunctiva or other structures of the eye, to the oral mucosa, nasal, sometimes the vagina or rectum.
Types and symptoms of melanoma
There are three main forms of melanoma:
- Malignant lentigo - affects most exposed areas of the skin of the neck and face, rarely closed - back, legs.Developed for a long time (from 5 to 20 years).It has the kind of black-and-brown-colored spots, so-called plaques;
- Noduljarnaja melanoma - the most aggressive, most often develops on the back, scalp, neck and limbs.Mainly affects the elderly over 50 years;
- acral melanoma.
When viewed oncologist draws attention to the following symptoms:
- Appearance moles, pigmented spots: its color, texture, density.Poor, if the mole has changed color or shape, or has a dense structure;
- Also, special attention is paid to the size of moles, pigmented spots (melanoma may have a size of 0.5 to 3 cm in diameter);
- Attention is paid, does not bleed if the surface under study;
- Another important feature is the redness of the skin near a mole or pigmented spots;
- itching in the area of moles is also a symptom of the degeneration of cells.
causes of the development of melanoma
most vulnerable to the appearance of melanoma people who have more of the risk factors below:
- bright, almost white skin, due to genetic characteristics, a low content of melanin pigment in theskin;
- genetically caused red hair, freckles, and also the presence of light skin;
- presence in the family of skin diseases, skin cancer, melanoma;
- presence of a large number of moles on the body.It is believed that if more than 50 moles of pieces, it may already be dangerous;
- presence on the body pigment spots, nevi.But if nevus hair grows, then the skin can not be reborn in malignant form;
- presence of skin diseases that can trigger the development of melanoma.It diseases such as melasma Dyubreya, xeroderma pigmentosum, and some others;
- Advanced age, but is more common among young people in recent melanoma;
- A history of sunburn;
If a person belongs to a group from the list, then he has to be very careful in the sun and attentive to their health, as it has a pretty good chance of developing melanoma.
Still, let's understand the underlying causes that cause the development of melanoma:
- Prolonged and frequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the skin.Especially dangerous is the sun which is in the zenith.This includes exposure to artificial sources of UV light (solarium, germicidal lamps and other);
- Traumatic lesions age spots, nevi, especially in those places where there is constant contact with their clothing and other environmental factors;
- Traumatic lesions of moles;
Diagnosis and treatment of melanoma
the presence of moles on the body, age spots, nevi should regularly monitor their condition and to carry out preventive examinations planned by specialists, not to overlook the development of melanoma.It is a well-known fact that any type of cancer is easier to treat only in the initial stages.Melanoma is no exception.
Doctor holds an external examination of the body areas where there are moles, age spots, assess their condition, the likelihood of degeneration into a malignant form.And, if it sees the need to appoint additional tests and examinations to confirm or refute the diagnosis.
Experienced doctors can only be in appearance to determine the presence of melanoma. But in such cases is always of paramount importance accurate diagnosis, so commissioning tests is mandatory.
If you suspect that the development of melanoma in the latter stages, with metastases, administered ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), X-rays and other methods of examination to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment of melanoma in two main ways:
- combined, including surgery and radiation therapy;
Naturally, the second method is the most prudent and efficient as melanoma quickly metastasize to nearby lymph nodes.And it is important for the successful treatment of both their growth can be stopped quickly.After a course of radiation, the tumor is removed with less likelihood of repeated metastases.
course, a major role in the success of the treatment plays a timely initiated therapy.Asking for help in the early stages gives a more favorable prognosis for recovery.Of equal importance is played by factors such as:
- extent of tumor invasion;
- place localization;
- presence and degree of damage metastases.
the treatment of melanoma immunotherapy has great benefit method.This is a relatively new and modern way of treatment, which is carried out after the operation to remove the tumor.to the content ↑
main method of preventing the development of cancer of the skin is the timely removal of birthmarks, age spots, nevi, who have been traumatized.As well as those parts of the body, which, because of its location at great risk of injury and, therefore, further opportunities for the development of melanoma.
Equally important is limiting sun exposure to people who are at risk (fair-skinned, red, with a large number of moles, as well as those who in the family there were cases of melanoma).For these people, it is very important to protect your skin from direct sunlight, as it may be for them it is a factor that will trigger the development of tumors.