Type 2 diabetes : symptoms , complications and treatment

Category Diabetes | August 12, 2017 18:01


  • reasons for non-insulin dependent diabetes
  • Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
  • diagnosis of non-insulin diabetes
  • Treatment of diabetes type 2
  • Complications of insulin-dependent diabetes

type 2 diabetes(another name - insulin-dependent diabetes), or SD II , - a metabolic disorder for which is characteristic of chronic hyperglycemia that develops as a result of violations of insulin secretion or abnormalities in the interaction of insulin with tissue cells.In other words, a feature of type 2 diabetes - the normal absorption of sugar from the intestines in violation move sugar from the blood to other cells of the body.Most often

mellitus type 2 develops after the age of 40 years in obese people and is around 90% of all types of diabetes mellitus.It is progressing slowly, rarely accompanied by ketoacidosis - a violation of carbohydrate metabolism caused by insulin deficiency and manifested in the form of high blood glucose and ketone bodies.

reasons for non-insulin dependent diabetes

DM II - a hereditary disease.The predominant number of people with this disease are overweight views.Because obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes type 2.

Other risk factors include:

  1. Ethnicity (eg, African Americans celebrated the disease more frequently);
  2. sedentary lifestyle;
  3. unhealthy diet high in refined carbohydrates in the diet and low - fat and crude fiber;
  4. presence of hypertension, ie,high pressure;
  5. presence of cardiovascular disease.

In addition, the risk group includes women with polycystic ovaries and those who gave birth to a child weighing more than 4 kg.

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Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

for diabetes II is characterized by the following internal processes:

  1. Too high level of glucose in the blood, which leads to the development of osmotic diuresis, ieexcessive loss of water through the kidneys and salts.This causes dehydration (dehydration) and the development deficiency potassium cations, sodium, magnesium, calcium and chloride anions carbonate and phosphate.
  2. Reduced ability to capture and process tissue (dispose of) glucose.
  3. Increased mobilization of other - alternative - energy sources (amino acids, free fatty acids, and others.).

glucose level is determined by biochemical analysis of blood, more info here.

Externally these pathological processes are manifested in the form of the following symptoms:

  1. Dry mucous membranes, intense thirst, even with abundant drinking;
  2. General and muscle weakness and fatigue;
  3. frequent cardiac arrhythmias;
  4. polyuria - frequent, excessive urination;
  5. muscle twitching;
  6. skin itch;
  7. zazhivlyaemost bad wounds;
  8. deviations from a normal body weight: Obesity / Weight Loss;
  9. Frequent infections;
  10. Visual impairment and other.
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diagnosis of non-insulin diabetes

problem diagnosis based on the symptoms is that in the case of diabetes II listed symptoms are expressed in varying degrees, appear irregularly and unevenly, sometimes even disappearing.It is therefore of particular importance in the diagnosis of diabetes has II laboratory blood test that identifies the blood sugar level measured in millimoles per liter (mmol / l).The capillary blood sample taken on an empty stomach, and then - after 2 hours after eating.

In a healthy person the normal level of sugar equal to the volume at 3.5-5 mmol / l.After 2 hours after eating a normal blood sugar level rises to 7-7,8 mmol / l.

If these figures are respectively more than 6.1 mmol / l or more to 11.1 mmol / L - we can already talk about the diagnosis "type 2 diabetes".Proof of this can also be the content of sugar in the urine.

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Treatment of diabetes type 2

Type 2 is considered to be a "light" form of diabetes than type 1 minutes: its symptoms are less pronounced and is delivered to the patient is less discomfort and suffering.But ignore even severe symptoms implicitly, expecting that the disease "goes by itself" - is extremely imprudent and simply unacceptable.Let cure diabetes medicine II, unfortunately, can not, however, diabetes can "manage", having lived with him a long and fulfilling life.

Driving treating non-insulin dependent diabetes the stage of development of the disease.For stage I patients are shown the diet, stress reduction, moderate exercise (walking in the fresh air, cycling, swimming), as even a slight decrease in weight at this stage can lead to normal carbohydrate metabolism in the body and glucose synthesisliver.

Dieting in DM II suggests:

  • fractional balanced meals (5-6 meals per day), according to a timetable and in small portions;
  • restriction of the use of simple, easily digestible carbohydrates, proteins and saturated fats, as well as salt and alcohol;
  • increased content in the diet of high-fiber foods, vitamins and other trace elements needed by the body (including the reception of multivitamins tablets);
  • in the case of excess weight - low-calorie diet (do1800 kcal per day).

only medication that is used already in stage I of the disease - is metformin. On II and III stages of the diet and physical activity combined with medications that do not contain insulin.Among the drugs used in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes, are the following groups:

  1. sulfonylurea group (SM) 2nd generation (. Chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, glimepiride, glibenclamide, etc.) stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreas and reduce the resistance of the peripheral tissues(liver, muscle, adipose tissue) to the hormone.
  2. preparations of biguanide groups: today is only metformin.It decreases hepatic glucose synthesis and its absorption in the gut cells enhances the absorption of sugar and increase tissue sensitivity to insulin.Mostly patients assigned metformin-diabetics with obesity who are experiencing difficulties with different kinds of weight loss.
  3. thiazolidinone derivatives (rosiglitazone, troglitazone) enhance insulin receptor activity and thereby reduce the level of glucose, normalizing lipid profile.
  4. alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol, acarbose) violates the absorption of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby reducing hyperglycemia and insulin requirements, arising after a meal.
  5. dipeptidilpeptidiazy 4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin) increase sensitivity to glucose in pancreatic β-cells than improve the glucose-insulin secretion.Incretins
  6. (glucagon-like peptide-1, or GLP-1) lead to increased secretion of glucose-insulin improve β-cell function and increased suppression of glucagon secretion.

Drug treatment begins with monotherapy (taking the drug 1), and then becomes a combination, ie including simultaneous reception of two or more hypoglycemic agents.

In case of complications the combination treatment is complemented by treatment of insulin.Its introduction is a kind of alternative to the pancreas, which normally should determine the level of sugar contained in the blood, and allocate the appropriate amount of insulin.

insulin is injected into the body by injection subcutaneously as insulin intake into orally (by mouth) would destroy the gastric juice preparation.

harder to make up for this ability of the pancreas, as timely release of insulin, ie,at the right, the right moment.Because it is essential to combine the ability of the patient, to coordinate meals and administering injections so that the sugar level is maintained in the normal permanently, avoiding both hyperglycemia, ie,high blood sugar levels and hypoglycemia - its low content.

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Complications of insulin-dependent diabetes

goes unnoticed for the patient, uncompensated diabetes II can gradually have a negative impact on his health and eventually lead to serious complications - the so-called "late complications of diabetes," which developed a few years later.The patient has this type of diabetes, the risk of heart attack and stroke is significantly increased blood circulation and fat metabolism, there is hypertension, lost sensitivity in the lower limbs, affects the organs of vision and kidney, etc.

are the following complications in type 2 diabetes:

  1. Diabetic microangiopathy - the defeat of the walls of small blood vessels: the violation of their permeability, increased fragility, tendency to form blood clots and the development of atherosclerosis.
  2. Diabetic macroangiopathy - defeat the large blood vessel walls.
  3. Diabetic Polyneuropathy - disorder of the nervous system associated with mikropatiey: polyneuritis of peripheral nerves, paresis, paralysis, etc.
  4. Diabetic arthropathy - "crunch" in the joints, pain in them, restriction of mobility, a decrease of synovial fluid, increasing its viscosity..
  5. Diabetic ophthalmopathy - early development of cataract, ie,lens opacity.
  6. Diabetic retinopathy - non-inflammatory lesion retina and other
  7. Diabetic nephropathy -. Kidney disease, which manifests itself in the presence of formed elements of blood and protein in the urine, in severe cases - followed by glomerulosclerosis and renal failure.
  8. Diabetic encephalopathy - change of mind and emotional state of the patient, emotional lability (mobility), depression, symptoms of central nervous system toxicity.

treatment of complications of diabetes is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist and the doctor the relevant specialty (ophthalmologist, neurologist, cardiologist, etc.).

Do not forget that today, diabetes is ranked third among diseases - the major cause of death (after heart disease and cancer).Because when all the symptoms of diabetes to neglect their health, anticipating that the disease "will pass by itself," or trying to cope with the symptoms of the disease, "grandmother's methods" - an unacceptable and unforgivable mistake.